Packaging knowledge from A to Z

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A

Air permeability

Material characteristics of paper; air volume that flows through the paper surface. An important characteristic for how packaging responds when on packaging machines working with a vacuum.

Anti-slip coating

Paper/corrugated cardboard coating designed to increase the static and sliding friction of the packaging.

B

BCT/Box Compression Test (DIN ISO 55440-1)

Box Compression Test (stacking crush pressure test) [kN]. The BCT describes the static load of a packaging unit. This is determined by means of a compression test.

BRC-IoP

Mandatory specified standards for suppliers of packaging materials for foodstuffs (primary/secondary packaging).

BST/Burst Pressure (DIN EN ISO 2758/2759)

Bursting strength [kPa] is the resistance which a circular clamped sample opposes a unilateral, consistently increasing pressure until bursting.

C

Cardboard

A flat material consisting mainly of vegetable fibres which is formed by draining a pulp suspension on a sieve. Cardboard has an area-related mass > 150-600 g/m².

Coatings

Surface finishing designed to improve the processing capability of the substance, to combine base materials in order to maximise the respective benefits of the individual materials and to compensate for disadvantages. During coating, particles of an amorphous substance are applied to a surface structure, which creates a closed coat.

Code of Conduct

A set of rules of conduct relating to ethical values, laws and other aspects of corporate responsibility. Such a code represents a type of self-regulation. Audits are used to determine whether Codes of Conduct are being complied with by suppliers and if any deviations are ascertained, corrective measures or even sanctions can be instigated. Well-known Codes of Conduct: BSCI Code of Conduct, UN Global Compact.

Corrugated cardboard

Corrugated cardboard is a packaging material which is composed of one or several flute layers. These flute layers are stuck onto the top and bottom with liner papers.

Corrugator

Production of corrugated cardboard from paper by reshaping and combining fluted and smooth paper webs.

Cromalin

Colour testing procedure (toner procedure); a cost-effective and safe proof for rastered colour separations. Cromalin largely corresponds to the European offset standard.

CTP

Computer to Plate is a catch-all term for numerous different imaging techniques for offset printing plates. The procedures differ in relation to the type of plate setter (inner drum, outer drum or flat-bed plate setter), the light sources used (violet and thermal laser, UV-light sources), the plate coating and the development of the imaged plate.

D

Digital Print

See ThimmColor® digital

Double-Wall

Double-walled corrugated cardboard; produced from a combination of the same or different flute formats. For example, EB-flute or BC-flute.

DTP

Desktop Publishing is the computer-based setting of high-quality texts and image documents which are subsequently published. Puncture test with a pendulum punching device (DIN 53142-1)
Test process that tests the puncture resistance of the packaging with a pendulum.

E

EAN

European Article Number; machine-readable barcode (EAN 13, EAN 128). This is used to simplify logistical procedures, for automation and to increase safety. The Europe-based worldwide organisation, the "European Article Numbering Association" together with the American Uniform Code Council, are responsible for the numbers and communications systems which comprise the EAN, UPC, EANCOM and UCS.

ECMA Code (DIN EN14054)

The ECMA Code is a technical and logical standard directory for the folding box industry and its partners. It is preferred for primary packaging made of cardboard. Here many familiar and common shapes of folded boxes are collated and displayed as a die-cut and in 3-D.

ECR (Efficient Consumer Response)

Joint initiative in which pre-suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers have joined forces. Its goal is to improve the logistics chain through joint efforts and as a result to offer consumers the best quality, service and product variety at optimum cost.

ECT/Edge Crush Test (DIN ISO EN 3037)

Edge Crush Test [kN/m] test process to determine the edge crush pressure of corrugated cardboard.

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)

EDI is the transfer of structured data by means of specified electronic messaging standards from one computer application to another with a minimum of manual intervention. EDI reduces costs, faults and errors through the avoidance of paperwork, correspondence and other administrative costs caused by the associated information flow. The practical benefit for ECR is clear from the specifications of EANCOM messages.

F

FCT/Flat Crush Test (DIN ISO EN 3035)

Test method which determines the flat crush resistance, [kPa] of single-wall corrugated cardboard.

FEFCO/ESBO Code (DIN EN14053)

The FEFCO/ESBO Code is a technical/logistics standard directory for the box industry and its partners. It is preferred for storage and transport packaging made of solid board and corrugated cardboard. Here many familiar and common shapes of boxes are collated and displayed as die-cuts such as in 3-D. Illustrations and explanations in three languages (German, English and French).

Flat-bed die cutter

Processing of corrugated cardboard with a flat cutting die (in contrast to the rotation process).

Flat die-cut cutter

Corrugated cardboard sheets are locked in the flat-die cutter and punched out by a flat-bed die-cutter in one stroke movement. This results in very precise die-cuts.
The difference to a rotary die cutter are the die-cut movements and the customised Tools.

Flexo-HQPP (HighQualityPostPrint)

Flexo direct printing at the highest quality level with cost-effective production for smaller print runs.

Flexo printing

Flexo printing is a direct high-pressure process which uses flexible photopolymer or rubber printing plates and low-viscosity inks. As a high-pressure process the raised areas are the print form and image-bearing.

Flexo Postprint

In contrast to Preprint, in corrugated cardboard direct printing, the printing is performed on the outer liner of the corrugated cardboard. This is suitable for simple printed images where high quality is not a requirement.

Flute types

  • F-flute 0.6 - 0.9 mm
  • E-flute 1.0 - 1.8 mm
  • T-flute 1.7 mm
  • B-flute 2.2 - 3.0 mm
  • C-flute 3.1 - 3.9 mm
  • A-flute 4.0 - 5.0 mm
  • FE-flute 1.6 - 2.7 mm
  • EE-flute 2.7 - 3.2 mm
  • BE/EB-flute 3.2 - 4.8 mm
  • BC-flute 5.3 - 6.9 mm
  • CAA-flute 11.1 - 13.9 mm

Folding box/carton

Folding boxes are made from one piece. The factory edge is joined to the connected side using adhesive strips, wire stitching or flap joints. Attached top and bottom flaps enable the subsequent closure of the folding box (folding bottom box).

Folding box gluing machine (Gluer)

A processing machine which uses gluing and carton die-cuts to produce flat-pack cartons from in a further processing step.

foodWave

THIMM foodWave is a flute type made of 100% fresh fibres for direct food contact.

foodWave | heatproof

THIMM foodWave | heatproof is a corrugated cardboard that is suitable for direct food contact and can be used in an oven or microwave. It is silicone-free and can be disposed of in the traditional recycled paper cycle.

FSC

FSC stands for the “Forest Stewardship Council” certification system. This seal distinguishes wood and paper products which originate from responsibly harvested forestry.

 

 

G

Grammage

Area related mass [g/m²], measurement unit for paper, solid cardboard and cardboard which determines the mass per unit area (m²).

H

Hazardous goods

Goods (materials/substances) which present specific risks to humans, animals and the environment. Packaging for hazardous materials must be an approved design and subject to special quality requirements in production.

I

Inliner (folding box line)

One single processing machine used for printing, die-cutting, gluing and folding. Frequently used for folding box production.

Inside liner

The paper on the inside of the corrugated cardboard.

Internal measurements

Internal dimensions of a packaging product. Adding the material thicknesses together gives the external dimensions.

J

Just-in-sequence (JIS)

“Just in sequence” describes a type of delivery in which the goods required are delivered at the right time, in the right quantity and in the right type to the right place and immediately processed there. The crucial difference here to Just-In-Time is that the delivery must be performed in the correct sequence.

Just-In-Time (JIT)

Production principle in which the delivery of the required materials is aligned to usage or consumption requirements. Therefore the sequences must be finely attuned to each other in order to avoid storage costs.

K

Kraftliner

Liner paper consisting of coniferous wood sulphate pulp with a maximum recycled fibre content of 20%. Due to its high portion of long fibres kraftliner is the strongest of all corrugated cardboard base papers. Kraftliner is humidity-resistant and is preferred for use in transport packaging.

L

Laminating

The joining of pre-fabricated surface structures using a lamination agent or through the thermoplastic behaviour of the processing product. Objective: To improve the processing capability of the substance, to combine base materials in order to maximise the respective benefits of the individual material and compensate for disadvantages.

Left-opening box

Die-cut where the adhesive flap is located on the left side (external view).

M

Module packaging

A system of packaging measurements (acc. to ISO 3637) derived from the module-measurement system from which the ISO basic module (600x400 mm) can be created on the basis of the EURO pallet.

Multi-wall packaging

This consists of two or more layers of fluted paper (wall) which are glued together by a layer of paper or cardboard (intermediate liner) and where its free external surface is also glued with a layer of paper or card (external and internal liner).

O

Offset Print

Offset print is an indirect flat printing process whereby print and non-print areas lie adjacent to each other on one level. Printing and non-print areas are separated by the physical principle of fat- water repulsion. High-viscosity printing inks are used which are transferred by the print form cylinder and the blanket cylinder onto the printing Substrate.
In offset printing (up to 100 lines/cm) more lines/cm can be printed on the printing substrate than in flexo printing (18 to 54 lines/cm). The higher the number of lines, the clearer the image when viewed closely. Typical applications for offset printing are gift boxes, brochures, posters and Displays.

P

Packaging aid

Used in conjunction with the packaging material or on its own for packaging the package item.

Packaging Container

Packaging material used to wrap around the package item. Depending on the type of packaging material this is composed of a range of packaging material parts and elements.

Package item

Item to be packaged or which has been packaged.

Packaging material

The material out of which the packaging aids and packaging containers are produced.
For example: Solid cardboard, paper, cardboard, plastic

Packaging unit

A shipping or transport unit combined into one piece.

Paperboard

A flat material consisting mainly of vegetable fibres which is formed by draining a pulp suspension on a sieve. Cardboard has an area-related mass > 225 g/m². Perforation
Broken cutting line; it is used to prepare bending points and as an opening aid (tear perforation).

Postprint

Finished corrugated cardboard is printed on directly using Postprint. This can lead to what is known as the “washboard effect” which can be created through the flutes of the cardboard during printing.
Pre-cut
Die-cut cartons which are delivered flat-packed without further processing (e.g. glued).

Preprint

In Preprint the liner of the corrugated cardboard is printed first and then laminated onto the corrugated cardboard.

Primary packaging

Primary packaging has a direct contact with its contents. Therefore, it must comply with all requirements relating to food and medical products. This ensures protection and quality.

Printing plate

Printing forms for flexo printing.

Print varnish

Colourless layer of varnish which is applied in the printing machine. Print varnish improves surface properties such as abrasion resistance and gloss.

Proof

A proof is a sample which is as close as possible to the respective print process. The proof is used as a means of fine-tuning the colours in a 1:1 Ratio.

R

Raster

A raster is the technical resolution of an image in printable points. The raster is measured in points per cm and also described as such, e.g. 24-bit raster, 48-bit raster, etc.

Retail Ready Packaging (RRP)

Shelf-Ready-Packaging taking into consideration the important requirements along the packaging-relevant commercial value chain from the commercial store to the POS and/or to disposal or product return.

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

Technology for the contactless identification of objects. Data is sent using radio waves from an RFID transponder to a recipient and then evaluated. RFID technology offers a useful addition to the bar code and should be used throughout the entire supply chain.

RFID Transponder

An RFID transponder is understood to be a radio transmitter that receives and returns signals from a reader. Such a transponder contains at least one unique product code, but often also additional information. Transponders can be designed in many different ways such as labels or plastic cards.

Right-opening box

Die-cut where the adhesive flap is located on the right side (external view).

Rotary die cutter

The corrugated cardboard sheets run through the rotary die cutter under a rotating cylinder without locking. The cutting tools fixed to a semi-circular wooden shell are mounted on this.
This procedure is significantly more productive than with the flat-die cutter, but not suitable for all die-cuts. Therefore, the two die-cut procedures differ but essentially through the die-cut movement and the customised tools on it.

S

Schrenz (grey chip)

Cheaper waste paper raw material with no glue that is highly moisture sensitive. It is used to produce the lowest grade of corrugated cardboard.

Score lines

The score line prepares mobile or hinged bending points designed to specify the geometric location of the bend, the creation of a hinged, bendable geometric cross-section and reduction of bending resistance at the bending point.

Screen printing

Screen printing is a direct printing process in which printing ink is printed with a rubber squeegee through a finely-woven fabric on the material to be printed. On those positions on the fabric where, according to the print image, no ink should be printed, the mesh openings of the fabric are made impermeable by a stencil.
Classic screen printing has been largely replaced by digital printing.

Secondary packaging

Outer packaging or secondary packaging, which contains a certain number of sales units, which are either dispensed together in the sales outlet to the end-user or used individually to populate retail shelving. This packaging can be removed from the goods without it influencing the properties of the goods.

Sectional drawing

Drawing (tool drawing) as a template for the production of the punching die and the print image design. The sectional drawing is also used as part of the order documents for quality assurance.
Sedex
Sedex stands for Supplier Ethical Data Exchange database. This platform provides a transparent overview of the sustainable and social commitment of companies.

Semi-chemical Pulp

Corrugated paper from chemically produced pulp (about 65%), maximum recycled fibre content 35%, better moisture stability than waste-based fluting, more expensive than waste-based fluting, high rigidity.

Short span compression strength/SCT (DIN 54518)

The SCT on sheet level is the maximum compression breaking force which opposes the test of a pre-defined compression.

Single-face corrugated cardboard

Corrugated cardboard with only one cover liner. The face is visible on one side.

Single-wall corrugated cardboard

Single-wall corrugated cardboard consists of one layer of fluted paper (flute), that is stuck between two layers of paper or cardboard (outside & inside cover).

SLC

Abbreviation for small load carrier. Small load carriers are available in different designs and sizes. They include standardised boxes made both of corrugated cardboard and plastic.

SMI/Supplier-managed Inventory

The supplier assumes responsibility for the inventory levels of the customer. To enable this the supplier obtains access to the inventory and demand data of the customer.

Solid board

A flat material consisting mainly of vegetable fibres which is formed by draining a pulp suspension on a sieve. Solid board has an area-related mass > 220 g/m².

Speciality Papers

Papers with special features. For example: THIMM Starliner®, THIMM Multiflute®, TPImpress!, TPGlossGD2!, Pizzaliner, Silicone liner and PE papers.

SRP (Shelf-Ready-Packaging)

Shelf-Ready-Packaging taking the important requirements of the POS into consideration:

  • Easy Identification
  • Easy Open
  • Easy Shelf
  • Easy Shop
  • Easy Dispose

Supply Chain

All activities which are necessary in order to satisfy the demand of a product or a service, starting from the demand for raw materials or data through to the delivery of the finished product to the end user.

T

ThimmColor® Flexo-Preprint Belt Technology

This describes an innovative web-fed process that has been specifically developed and patented for the requirements of corrugated cardboard production. It can produce extra-large formats up to 450 cm in length very cost-effectively and largely in one piece. The printing plates are mounted on endless belts.

ThimmColor® Flexo-Preprint CI-Technology

This describes cutting-edge web-fed printing procedures (CI = Common Impression / central cylinder printing), that through spoilage-saving sleeve technology outputs continuous print lengths up to 206 cm print images with particularly high levels of precision and speed.

Tertiary packaging

The priority is to protect goods from transportation damage. The packaging is often designed to comply with HGV and container measurements to achieve optimum capacity utilisation. Transport packaging is made out of a range of materials such as corrugated cardboard, wood or foam plastics, enabling it to be protected from impacts and outside influences.

Testliner

Liner paper made from 100% recycled fibres with defined strengths. It is generally available as multi-layer, glued and unglued. In comparison to kraftliner, it is overall more moisture-sensitive and has a lower burst pressure. In Germany there are three different TL groups: T1, T2 and T3.

ThimmColor®

ThimmColor® is the brand name for high-quality, pre-printed packaging from THIMM THE HIGHPACK GROUP. ThimmColor® products are printed with our patented flexo preprint process.

ThimmColor® digital

Digital printing describes a group of printing procedures, in which the print image is directly transferred from a digital dataset into a printing machine which means that no traditional print form/plate is required.
THIMM uses the leading-edge HP PageWide Inkjet T1100S printing machine to achieve this. On different lanes, divided rolls enable the parallel printing of different orders in varying format sizes and print runs. Many small jobs can be placed in queues and produced together without any intermediate preparation. With water and pigment-based inks first-class colour printing at offset level is created.

THIMM Social Responsibility (TSR)

THIMM Social Responsibility describes THIMM's corporate responsibility in the three areas of Economy, Ecology and Society. The THIMM Group has identified four fields of action within these three pillars:

  • Economy: Field of action Market
  • Ecology: Field of action Environment & Processes
  • Society: Field of Action Employees
  • Society: Field of Action Community

V

VCI papers

Papers that are coated or impregnated with VCI (Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor). Applying the VCI active substance deposits it on the surface of the metallic packaging and creates the corrosion protection.

VMI/Vendor managed inventory

The supplier assumes responsibility for the inventory levels of the customer. To enable this the supplier obtains access to the inventory and demand data of the customer.

Volume tolerance

Tolerances in the order volume which are significantly influenced by technical production factors. Over and under delivery volumes of an order quantity move within defined tolerance limits, unless otherwise agreed.

W

Waste-based fluting

Waste-based fluting consists of recycled fibres with a certain proportion of additives (such as starch).

Wet-strength corrugated cardboard

Wet-strength corrugated cardboard consisting of corrugated cardboard with a wet-strength glue.

Wrap-around

Wrap-around packaging is packaging which is assembled, filled and closed using automated machines. The particular feature of this automated packaging is that the three work steps described can be performed within one cycle, in other words, only one machine is required to manage them.
In practice the die-cut of the wrap-around packaging is shaped into a "U" into which the products are positioned laterally. The packaging is then closed with hot glue. The counter-pressure which occurs when it is filled with the products ensures it is glued securely.

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